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كيان وسيط ينظم العلاقات المتداخلة.. كيف انهار مفهوم الدولة؟! – صحيفة المنتدى الثقافي العراقي للتأصيل
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أخبار عاجلة
الرئيسية / رؤى /
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كيان وسيط ينظم العلاقات المتداخلة.. كيف انهار مفهوم الدولة؟!


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كيان وسيط ينظم العلاقات المتداخلة.. كيف انهار مفهوم الدولة؟!


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علاء محمد

يميلُ الإنسانُ بطبعه إلى الاجتماع ويرفض الوحدة وإن ادعى حبَها، ولم يُؤثَر عنه منذ أن بدأ يؤرخُ لنفسه إلا سعيَه الدائم نحو الجماعاتِ وتكوينها؛ إيمانًا منه بقصورِ قوته وعقله على السواء، وأن ذلك القصورُ لا يمكن جبرُه إلا بالاجتماعِ إلى أقرانه وجمعِ قوتهم إلى قوته وخلاصة تفكيرهم إلى نتائج تفكيره القاصرة، فهكذا وهكذا فقط يستطيع الإنسان أن يُضفيَ على حياته إحساسًا بالأمان.
وكنتيجةٍ لسعي كلِ إنسان وراءَ ذلك الإحساس الذي لا يلقاه إلا بتكوين مجتمعٍ مترابط، تفوقُ قوتُه قوةَ الإنسان المفرد أمام العقبات التي تهددُ بقاءَه، ويفوقُ مجموعُ نتاجه الفكري الرؤى المنفردة لكل فردٍ على حدى؛ وبالتالي يضمن الإنسانُ مستقبلاً أفضل ضمن هذا الإطار الجامع، كنتيجةٍ لهذا السعي بدأ الإنسان يخط لهذه المجتمعات التي لا مفر من تكوينها أعرافًا وقوانين تضمن أن يؤدي هذا المجتمع الدور الذي كُون من أجله، وأن لا تجرفَه الأهواءُ والأحداث بعيدًا عن ذلك، وهنا يا صديقي تطور الأمرُ وصولاً إلى مفهوم الدولة.
الدولة، كيانٌ وسيط ينظم العلاقات المتداخلة بين أفراد المجتمع وفقًا لقوانين مستمَدة من القيم التي توَافق عليها مجموعُ أفراده، وتلك القيم إما أن تكون نابعةً من الدين أو منظومة الاخلاق أو من الأعراف والعادات المتوارثَة، أو نابعة منها جميعًا.
هذا الإجماعُ على الهيكل الحاكم لفكرة الدولة هو ما يضمن سيرَها نحو الهدف الذي أُنشأت لأجله، فالدولة تتوسط في قضايا أفرادها وفقًا لناموسٍ مقدس تسعى كلُ أمةٍ في تدوينه على هيئة دستورٍ أو وثيقةٍ جامعة، تضمنُ هذه الوثيقة حياد الدولة المطلق تجاه أبنائها، وأن يكون الجميع على صعيدٍ واحد في نظرها دونَ أن تُنزلهم المراتب، وأن تُسخِّر الدولة قوتَها الباطشة من أجل إقامة تلك الوساطة وفرضها وفقًا لقوانينها المؤسِسةِ لها.
تراجعُ مفهومُ الدولة لصالح مفهوم النظام الذي يصطبغ بصبغة الاستبداد، فالدولة لم تعد تحكمها قوانينُ المجتمعِ وأعرافِه بل أهواءُ أعضائها ومصالحهم الفردية
هذا هو بيتُ القصيد، أن لا يكون التحاكمُ فيما يعرض بين الأفراد إلى رؤاهم وأحكامهم الفردية، بل إلى قوةٍ مفوَضةٍ بذلك بحكم ما هو ” متَفقٌ عليه “. وهذا الحيادُ وحدَه هو ما يعطي لفكرة الدولة مشروعيتها، وما إن تفقده حتى تفقد صفتَها وتتحول إلى قوةٍ باطشة تحتكم إلى أهواءٍ فردية لا تخلو من المفاسد.
حسنًا عزيزي القارئ، إلى هذا الحد أشعرُ أنني أطلت عليك شيئًا قليلاً، ولكني لم أجدْ مفرًا من التقديم لفكرة الدولة ومتطلبات وجوبها، ربما لأنك عزيزي القارئ تقرأ كلماتي هذه في أحد أقطار وطننا العربي العزيز حيثُ لا يتضح أيُ ملمحٍ من ملامح الدولة حاليًا، لذا وجب التقديم. الآن وإن تحدَثنا بشكلٍ أكثرَ تخصيصًا فإن الدولة في محيطنا العربي لا تلبث أن تتآكل حتى لا يكادُ يبقى من مفهومها شيئا.
يتراجعُ مفهومُ الدولة لصالح مفهوم النظام الذي يصطبغ بصبغة الاستبداد، فالدولة لم تعد تحكمها قوانينُ المجتمعِ وأعرافِه بل أهواءُ أعضائها ومصالحهم الفردية؛ وبالتالي فإن قوةَ الدولة وأدواتِها لم تعد متوفرةً للمصلحة العامة التي يجدُ كلُ فردٍ فيها نصيبًا مستحَقًا، بل أصبحت الدولة بكامل صلاحياتها -المستمَدة في الأصل من المجتمع- في خدمة عددٍ ضئيل من أعضائها هم نسبةٌ لا تكادُ تُذكر من المجموعِ العام.
القوة الفردية وحتى قوة الدولة لم تعد تسير في مساراتٍ تحددها القوانين المستَمدة من الدين ومنظومة الأخلاق، بل من القناعات الفردية التي كثيرًا ما تتعارض
هذا الفساد الذي أخرج الدولة عن مفهومها أسدل ستائرَه السوداء على قيم المجتمع، فقوة الدولة التي صارت تسقطُ في غير موضعها جعلت المجتمع يغير من كل شيء يخصه، أعرافَه وتقاليده وعاداتِه وقيمه، لم يعد المسموحُ به بالأمس مسموحًا به اليوم، والمرفوضُ إلى حدِ التحريمِ في الماضي صار الآن عادةً متبَعة، كلُ شيءٍ تغير حتى لا يكادُ مجتمعُ الأمس يلتقي بمجتمعِ اليوم إلا على حد التناقض.
تخلي الدولة عن مسؤولياتها تجاه المجتمع المؤسِس لها نظير مسؤولياتٍ جديدة على نطاقٍ محدود يخدم نسبةً بعينها من أبنائها؛ جعل المجتمع يقوم بتلك المسؤوليات ولكن بشكلٍ فردي ومنعزل، فأركان التخطيط والتشريع والتقاضي التي يقومُ عليها بناءُ الدولة، أوجد المجتمع لها قيمًا ومساراتٍ موازية تتجنبُ إشراك الدولة في أيٍ من تفاصيلها، أي أن المجتمع أوجد لنفسه دولةً موازية.
ولكن هذه الدولة لا تقوم على أُسسٍ متفقٍ عليها من الجميع، بل على القناعات الشخصية للأفراد، كلُ مطلق صار نسبيًا، وكلُ مفروغٍ منه صار عُرضةً للمراجعة والرفض من قِبل الملايين، بمعنى أن المجتمع حين أنشأ بديلاً للدولة أنشأَه بعدد أفرادِه، فكلٌ كفيلٌ على نفسه قيِّمٌ على حياته بما يراه هوَ مناسبًا، ووفقًا لمفهومه الخاص عن الصواب والخطأ.
القوة الفردية وحتى قوة الدولة لم تعد تسير في مساراتٍ تحددها القوانين المستَمدة من الدين ومنظومة الأخلاق، بل من القناعات الفردية التي كثيرًا ما تتعارض، وهي الآن لا تجدُ حَكَمًا وسيطًا، فالدولة ذاتُها صارت مصالحُها تتعارضُ بل تتصارع مع مصالح أفرادها.
هذا الانهيارُ لمفهومِ الدولة ينذر بانهيار المجتمعِ ككل، أو انهياره بالشكل الذي نعرفه وتكَوّن مجتمعٍ مشوه لربما يفوقه النظامُ السائدُ في الغابة تحضرًا.


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عن Admin


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