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كادح الى ربك كدحاً.. أي إنسان يريد الله؟ – صحيفة المنتدى الثقافي العراقي للتأصيل
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أخبار عاجلة
الرئيسية / رؤى /
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كادح الى ربك كدحاً.. أي إنسان يريد الله؟


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كادح الى ربك كدحاً.. أي إنسان يريد الله؟


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سمير عراب

لذا قالوا في محاولتهم لبسط هذا الإشكال أن الإنسان ((حيوان ناطق)) و((كائن واع))، فملكة الوعي واللغة كانا المعيارين اللذين يُميزان الإنسان عن باقي كائنات بيئته البيولوجية. لكن، مع تقدم المعارف والاكتشافات العلمية والثورات الفكرية نجد أن من أقرب ما وصف به الإنسان، وعُرف به منطقيا في الوعي الحديث تمردا على المعقولات التجريدية الأولى فيه، هو أن ((الانسان حيوان ناقد)) و((كائن محتج))، كما رأى “ماركس شيلر”، وكذلك إناطة “البير كامو” ربطه وُجود الإنسان بتمرد: (أنا أتمرد إذن أنا موجود).
عودة إلى السؤال، إذا كان رهط كبير من المثقفين والفلاسفة يعتبرون الإنسان حيوان محتجا، وأن إنسانية الإنسان رهينة بممارسة النقد والتمرد على السائد، فالأحرى بنا توسيع دائرة السؤال، والقول: أي إنسان يريد الله تعالى؟ ما نموذج الإنسان الخليفة في الارض؟
في البدء، لا مناص من قراءة تأملية لآيات الاستخلاص (وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً قَالُوا أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَنْ يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ)، والملاحظ أن جزءا من الجواب مضمور في هذه الآية، حيث أن نموذج الإنسان الخليفة بالمعنى القرآني هو الذي يحب المعرفة والباحث عنها (وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الأَسْمَاء كُلَّهَا)، والذي يقدر على التمرد على غرائزه (وَعَصَى آدَمُ رَبَّهُ فَغَوَى) .فالله أمر الملائكة أن تسجد لآدم لأنه الكائن الوحيد الذي يحمل في ذاته وحدة الأضداد (نعم) و(لا)، (مادة) و(روح)، والكائن الوحيد الذي يقدر على تجاوز ذاته وأناه والتمرد على غرائزه، وأن يرفع نفسه إلى أعلى عليين، أو أن ينزل بها إلى أسفل سافلين (وَنَفْسٍ وَمَا سَوَّاهَا فَأَلْهَمَهَا فُجُورَهَا وَتَقْوَاهَا).
وبالتالي، فالإنسان هو الكائن الفريد من نوعه، الذي يكون حرا في اختيار الخضوع “نعم” أو التمرد “لا”، هو الذي لا يمكن تطويعه بسهولة (قَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا)، وتجربة آدم في الجنة كانت البث التجريبي الأول لهذه الخاصية الإنسانية عندما خالف الأمر الإلهي ولم يمتثل له (وَعَصَى آدَمُ رَبَّهُ). وبناء على هذا، فإن تفضيل الله لآدم راجع بالأساس إلى كونه أكثر معرفة وعلما على الملائكة وأوسعهم اطلاعا.
فرب العزة لا يريد أي إنسان، بل يريد نموذجا خاصا تتضمن فيه مجموعة من الصفات المذكورة في الآيات السابقة، لعل أبرزها لا على سبيل الحصر: الباحث والمتأمل والمترد الناقد. وهذه هي “الأمانة” التي حملها الإنسان في هذا الوجود (إِنَّا عَرَضْنَا الْأَمَانَةَ عَلَى السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَالْجِبَالِ فَأَبَيْنَ أَن يَحْمِلْنَهَا وَأَشْفَقْنَ ممِنْهَا وَحَمَلَهَا الْإِنسَانُ إِنَّهُ كَانَ ظَلُومًا جَهُولًا)، بل إن الإنسان استحق القيام بعملية الاستخلاف في الارض بسبب هذه المواصفات التي ينفرد بها.
إذن، فآيات الإستخلاف في سورة البقرة، توضح لنا نموذج الإنسان “الخليفة” الذي يريد الله، والنبي إبراهيم هو صورة مصغرة لهذا النموذج، إنسان ذو حس تأملي عميق ورح استكشافية ونزعة نقدية شكاكة. إنسان يبحث عن الحقيقة في هذا الوجود ولا يقبل الأجوبة الجاهزة والأفكار الشائعة ولا يخضع لسلطة المورث:
)الَّذِينَ يَسْتَمِعُونَ الْقَوْلَ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ أَحْسسَنَهُ أُوْلَئِكَ الَّذِينَ هَدَاهُمُ اللَّهُ وَأُوْلَئئِكَ هُمْ أُوْلُوا الْأَلْبَابِ)، إنسان يجيد النطق بلغة الرفض والعصيان “لا” كما يجيد لغة الخنوع والطاعة “نعم”. إنسان يُعود نفسه على السباحة في المياه العميقة للمحيط العاج بالأسئلة المؤرقة، والضاج بالهواجس والمخصب بالمخاوف… فقط بهذا يحقق لإنسان ذاته وإنسانيته.
لذلك لا عجب في القول، أن الوحي ظاهرة نقدية محضة، للمجتمعات التي ارتهن الوعي فيها بنسق الآباء (وكَذَلِكَ مَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ فِي قَرْيَةٍ مِّن نَّذِيرٍ إلاَّ قَالَ مُتْرَفُوهَا إنَّا وجَدْنَا آبَاءَنَا عَلَى أُمَّةٍ وإنَّا عَلَى آثَارِهِم مُّقْتَدُونَ قَالَ أَوَ لَوْ جِئْتُكُم بِأَهْدَى مِمَّا وجَدتُّمْ عَلَيْهِ آبَاءَكُمْ قَالُوا إنَّا بِمَا أُرْسِلْتُم بِهِ كَافِرُونَ)، لذلك “فالآبائية” ليست نمطا تاريخيا في التفكير مرتبطا بعبادة الأصنام، بل هي نسق معرفي ورؤية في التحليل مرتبطة بالخضوع لسلطة السائد والراسخ، وقمع السؤال الحارق.
وقد عالج النقد القرآني المنظور التراثي البشري الذي أحاطت به المخيلات الخرافية والأسطورية، وتضمن معالجة نقدية لكل الموروث الروحي المتعلق بالكتب السماوية السابقة، وهذا النقد التراثي ليس بقصد إحداث قطيعة مع التراث الروحي للبشرية، ولكن بقصد استعادة هذا التراث إلى حقيقته في مجرى التوحيد:
تالله لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَى أُمَمٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فَهُوَ وَلِيُّهُمُ الْيَوْمَ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ وَمَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا لِتُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ الَّذِي اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ)… إنه استرجاع نقدي لا يكاد يبلغه الحفر الأركيولوجي المعاصر تجاه الموروث البشري، إذ يتضمن تعرية الحقول الثقافية الأسطورية والخرافية التي استلبت حقائق تلك الكتب السماوية وحقائق النبوات. (العالمية الإسلامية الثانية: محمد أبوالقاسم الحاج حمد ص422-423).


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عن Admin


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أفي الله شك..الله والقرآن في مرمى الشكوك


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عصام القيسي هناك موجة شك ديني تجتاح شريحة الشباب المثقف في البلاد الإسلامية، بعضها يصل …