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تعليم المقهورين أو تواطؤ مع الاستبداد – صحيفة المنتدى الثقافي العراقي للتأصيل
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أخبار عاجلة
الرئيسية / تقارير و أستطلاعات /
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تعليم المقهورين أو تواطؤ مع الاستبداد


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تعليم المقهورين أو تواطؤ مع الاستبداد


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تيسير عودة

نتحدثُ كثيرا عن المثقف العربي، وعن سقوطه في أحضان السلطة على غرار جدنا المتنبي الذي ملأ الدنيا وشغل الناس، ولكنه كان نموذجا لمثقف السلطة، حتى أن صورة كافور الإخشيدي التي وصلتنا من خلال أشعار المتنبي أخرجت الأول من التاريخ وأدخلت الثاني لدائرة الخلود من أوسع أبوابه رغم عبقرية المتنبي وعلو كعبه.
لا نريد أن نخلق من المثقف حصان طروادة الذي يعول عليه في صناعة التاريخ والتحولات التاريخية والحضارية الكبرى، ولكن المثقف بدءا بسقراط وأفلاطون وأرسطو ومرورا بالحلاج وابن عربي وابن خلدون وبيندا وهيوم وراسل وسارتر وادوارد سعيد والجابري وتشومسكي وغيرهم، هو صنيعة التراكم الابيستومولوجي والذاتي والحضاري والجمعي والديني لأية أمة كانت، والمراقب لحركة التاريخ وصيرورته يدرك دور المثقف سلبا وإيجابا في علاقته مع الجماهير والمعذبين في الأرض وقبل هذا في علاقته مع السلطة والمقاومة.
المثقف العربي عموما يهرب من كل شيء حتى من نفسه. هو يهرب من السياسة خوفا من الجنرال. عندما تقوم الحروب والكوارث في بلادنا، يهرب الكاتب إلى أعماقه، يهرب إلى أبعد بقعة في الهامش، يتحدث عن كل شيء إلا الضحايا، يتحدث عن الموسيقى، والعشيقات، والحب، يتحدث عن الريفيرا وتمثال الحرية ومايكل أنجلو، ولكنه لا يتحدث عن الجنرال، ولا يذكر الجنرال. يفتش عن وليمة الجوائز التي يمنحها الجنرال، وكلما حصل على جائزة يصبح أكثر هروبا من ذي قبل. الهروب من الواقع والجنرال بات الصفة الأكثر تعريفا للمثقف العربي، ويصبح الحديث عن الاستبداد في الصين أقرب لوجدان الكاتب من الحديث عن فقراء وطنه والواقفين على طابور الخبز والموت منذ عقود.

الجامعات كمصانع للثقافة والتنوير:

ليسَ ضروريا أن تغير العالم، فمن الممكن أن تغير نفسك، ثم تبدأ بغيرك والآخرين. الطالب الذي لا يمتلك القدرة على تداول الحرية في التفكير والتعبير وتداول المعرفة هو صورة مشروخة لجوهر المعرفة وحقيقتها.
خلقت الأكاديمية أو الجامعات في بغداد والأندلس وزمن الإغريق من أجل تحقيق الحرية والعدالة والمساواة الأرضية: حرية التفكير والحياة وعدالة القانون والمساواة أمام الآخرين رغم اختلاف أنسابهم وأعراقهم وأجناسهم. هي ذاتها الحرية التي تجعل من العقل البشري نافذة على الذات والعالم والوجود، بعيدا عن فكرة سجون التفكير والتعبير والإبداع. هي ذاتها الحرية التي صنعت ابن رشد وابن سينا والفارابي والكندي وابن الهيثم وغيرهم.
ليس ضروريا أن تغير العالم، فمن الممكن أن تغير نفسك، ثم تبدأ بغيرك والآخرين. الطالب الذي لا يمتلك القدرة على تداول الحرية في التفكير والتعبير وتداول المعرفة هو صورة مشروخة لجوهر المعرفة وحقيقتها. وفي نفس السياق جاءت الجامعة الغربية كمصنع للثقافة التنويرية واختلاق مختبرات نقدية مستقلة وإبداعية مناهضة لكل أشكال السلطة وأنساق الدوجمائية والأرثوذوكسية والاستبداد. نريد مزيدا من حدائق المعرفة، وأزاهيرها وعطرها الفواح! المعرفة تشبه سلالم الحقيقة التي لا تنتهي صوب الحياة والحرية الحرة! الحرية الحرة كما يسميها الشاعر رامبو هي جوهر الوجود والحياة. أن تكون حرا في فكرتك وحياتك وقراراتك وعاداتك وانتماءاتك وجنونك وعقلانيتك وعدميتك وتشاؤمك وتأويلك للعالم والوجود. أن تكون قبسا من نور يتجلى في عتمة الأسئلة التي لا تحصى. أن تكون لا كما يريد مريدوك، بل كما تريد أنت. بين حريتك الحرة وحريتك المسلوبة أحلام مشنوقة ورغبات مشروخة وخرائط متخيلة. نحن لا نولد أحرارا كما نتخيل، والدليل أننا لم نختر أسماءنا أو أوطاننا ولغاتنا الأم ولا آباءنا، لكننا نولد على دفعات وفي وعينا الإنساني أرشيف مهول من الهويات الحرة والمتناقضة والمقهورة.
وربما لو استعرضنا رؤية المفكر البرازيلي باولو فريري في كتابة الموسوم بعنوان “تعليم المقهورين” لوجدنا تجليات المشهد الثقافي العربي برمته مشابها لنفس السياق الذي سبر أغواره فريري، فهو يرى أن التعليم البنكي أو المصرفي نموذج ديكتاتوري وقسري يتم من خلاله تحويل الطالب لمتلقٍ سلبي يشبه دوره دور المصرف، ويفقد الطلاب القدرة على التفكير الناقد المستقل أو الإبداعي، بل ويحوله لمواطن مدجن فكريا وسياسيا ووجوديا. وهنا تتجلى مقولة فريري العظيمة في خضم التربية النقدية وتربية الحرية: “التعليم لا يكون محايدا، فإما أن يكون تعليما للحرية وإما تعليما للاستعباد”.
المثقف هو نص مرتحل بين الثقافة الضرورية وبين الواقع المغمس بالتضحية والمقاومة حتى لو كان الثمن أغلى ما يملك. ربما هي ذاتها التضحية التي تحدث عنها المفكر جوليان بيندا في كتابه “خيانة المثقفين” إذ يجلي بيندا حجم القطيعة التاريخية والأخلاقية التي حدثت بين المثقف الغربي والواقع السياسي، وربما بلغت راديكالية بيندا أن يعرف المثقف بأنه المفكر القادر على التضحية حتى لو اضطر لشنق نفسه على مقصلة الحقيقة، حسب النموذج السقراطي.
قلة قليلة من يستطيع أن يقترح حلولا جوهرية وعملية وقلة قليلة من يحمل إرادة التغيير والإصلاح والخروج من عنق التنظير وضيق الخطب العصماء إلى سعة الواقع وأفق التحولات الكبرى. وكثير من الفلاسفة والعلماء وأهل المنطق متفقون أن إبر البنسلين وورق التواليت أكثر أهمية من ملايين الخطب التي تشعل العاطفة وتمنح عامة الناس شعورا يشبه من يتعاطى المخدرات، ويتجلى حسب مقدار الجرعة.
تبدو أفكار ماركس التي حاولت أن تشخص الصراع الطبقي وآيدولوجيات البرجوازية المركزية لا تكفي لمواجهة مخرز الرأسمالية التي تتمدد وتتشكل في سياقات مغتربة عن الواقع وبعيدة عن قيم العدالة والمساواة. البديهيات الآيديولوجية والثقافية كما يراها جرامشي تجعل من أمر الرأسمالية المتأخرة ضرورة تاريخية مبررة ويتم شرعنتها من خلال قوانين لا تقل عبثية عن قوانين حمورابي وهولاكو، ولكن في صورة تقدمية منظمة تسمى القانون الدولي وحقوق الإنسان، وقوانين الضرائب المتوحشة.


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عن Admin


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